Electrical behavior and positive temperature coefficient effect of graphene/polyvinylidene fluoride composites containing silver nanowires
1 Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
2 Shenzhen Research Institute, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Nanoscale Research Letters 2014, 9:375 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-375Published: 1 August 2014
Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composites filled with in situ thermally reduced graphene oxide (TRG) and silver nanowire (AgNW) were prepared using solution mixing followed by coagulation and thermal hot pressing. Binary TRG/PVDF nanocomposites exhibited small percolation threshold of 0.12 vol % and low electrical conductivity of approximately 10-7 S/cm. Hybridization of TRGs with AgNWs led to a significant improvement in electrical conductivity due to their synergistic effect in conductivity. The bulk conductivity of hybrids was higher than a combined total conductivity of TRG/PVDF and AgNW/PVDF composites at the same filler loading. Furthermore, the resistivity of hybrid composites increased with increasing temperature, giving rise to a positive temperature coefficient (PTC) effect at the melting temperature of PVDF. The 0.04 vol % TRG/1 vol % AgNW/PVDF hybrid exhibited pronounced PTC behavior, rendering this composite an attractive material for making current limiting devices and temperature sensors.