Open Access Nano Express

In vitro enhancement of dendritic cell-mediated anti-glioma immune response by graphene oxide

Wei Wang12, Zhongjun Li3, Jinhong Duan2, Chen Wang3, Ying Fang3* and Xian-Da Yang2*

Author Affiliations

1 Peking University People’s Hospital, Peking University Hepatology Institute, Beijing 100044, China

2 Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100005, China

3 National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Beijing 100190, China

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Nanoscale Research Letters 2014, 9:311  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-311

Published: 20 June 2014

Abstract

Malignant glioma has extremely poor prognosis despite combination treatments with surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy may potentially serve as an adjuvant treatment of glioma, but its efficacy generally needs further improvement. Here we explored whether graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets could modulate the DC-mediated anti-glioma immune response in vitro, using the T98G human glioma cell line as the study model. Pulsing DCs with a glioma peptide antigen (Ag) generated a limited anti-glioma response compared to un-pulsed DCs. Pulsing DCs with GO alone failed to produce obvious immune modulation effects. However, stimulating DCs with a mixture of GO and Ag (GO-Ag) significantly enhanced the anti-glioma immune reaction (p < 0.05). The secretion of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) by the lymphocytes was also markedly boosted by GO-Ag. Additionally, the anti-glioma immune response induced by GO-Ag appeared to be target-specific. Furthermore, at the concentration used in this study, GO exhibited a negligible effect on the viability of the DCs. These results suggested that GO might have potential utility for boosting a DC-mediated anti-glioma immune response.

Keywords:
Glioma; Dendritic cell; DC; Graphene oxide; GO; Immunotherapy