SpringerOpen Newsletter

Receive periodic news and updates relating to SpringerOpen.

Open Access Nano Express

Labeling the oily core of nanocapsules and lipid-core nanocapsules with a triglyceride conjugated to a fluorescent dye as a strategy to particle tracking in biological studies

Luana Almeida Fiel12*, Renata Vidor Contri1, Juliane Freitas Bica2, Fabrício Figueiró3, Ana Maria Oliveira Battastini3, Sílvia Stanisçuaski Guterres1 and Adriana Raffin Pohlmann12

Author Affiliations

1 Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, Porto Alegre, RS 90610-000, Brazil

2 Departamento de Química Orgânica, Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Porto Alegre, RS 91501-970, Brazil

3 Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2600, Porto Alegre, RS 90035-003, Brazil

For all author emails, please log on.

Nanoscale Research Letters 2014, 9:233  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-233

Published: 13 May 2014

Abstract

The synthesis of novel fluorescent materials represents a very important step to obtain labeled nanoformulations in order to evaluate their biological behavior. The strategy of conjugating a fluorescent dye with triacylglycerol allows that either particles differing regarding supramolecular structure, i.e., nanoemulsions, nanocapsules, lipid-core nanocapsules, or surface charge, i.e., cationic nanocapsules and anionic nanocapsules, can be tracked using the same labeled material. In this way, a rhodamine B-conjugated triglyceride was obtained to prepare fluorescent polymeric nanocapsules. Different formulations were obtained, nanocapsules (NC) or lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC), using the labeled oil and Eudragit RS100, Eudragit S100, or poly(caprolactone) (PCL), respectively. The rhodamine B was coupled with the ricinolein by activating the carboxylic function using a carbodiimide derivative. Thin layer chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to identify the new product. Fluorescent nanocapsule aqueous suspensions were prepared by the solvent displacement method. Their pH values were 4.6 (NC-RS100), 3.5 (NC-S100), and 5.0 (LNC-PCL). The volume-weighted mean diameter (D4.3) and polydispersity values were 150 nm and 1.05 (NC-RS100), 350 nm and 2.28 (NC-S100), and 270 nm and 1.67 (LNC-PCL). The mean diameters determined by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) (z-average) were around 200 nm. The zeta potential values were +5.85 mV (NC-RS100), -21.12 mV (NC-S100), and -19.25 mV (LNC-PCL). The wavelengths of maximum fluorescence emission were 567 nm (NC-RS100 and LNC-PCL) and 574 nm (NC-S100). Fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the cell uptake (human macrophage cell line) of the fluorescent nanocapsules in order to show the applicability of the approach. When the cells were treated with the fluorescent nanocapsules, red emission was detected around the cell nucleus. We demonstrated that the rhodamine B-conjugated triglyceride is a promising new material to obtain versatile dye-labeled nanocarriers presenting different chemical nature in their surfaces.

Keywords:
Fluorescent triglyceride; Fluorescent polymeric nanocapsules; Lipid-core nanocapsules; Fluorescence; Cell uptake