Magnetization loops performed at room temperature showing paramagnetic and ferromagnetic components. (a) Specific magnetization loops σ(H) for all ZnO-V2O5 samples after subtracting the diamagnetic component from the container. A strong paramagnetic component appears on samples 1 h, 1 h.Cal, and 1 h.Et.Cal which is attributed to the formation of V2O3 on sample 1 h, and secondary phases containing V+3 ions on samples 1 h.Cal and 1 h.Et.Cal. The arrows show how the paramagnetic component changes after TT. (b) Ferromagnetic components produced by V+5, +3 ions and VO near the surface of the ZnO NPs to form BMPs.
Olive-Méndez et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2014 9:169 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-169