Figure 1.

AFM images of 30-nm-thick Ag films scanned at RT. Samples deposited at (a) 295 K and (b) 170 K - the surface smoothness is influenced solely by thermal migration of atoms leading to continuous and almost uniform layers, (c) at 140 K - islands due to atom migration and deposition onto sapphire substrate covered with water ice nanocrystals are more pronounced, and (d) at 90 K - the surface smoothness is deteriorated by cracks that result from water ice crystal melting.

Stefaniuk et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2014 9:153   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-153
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