Differentiated counts with respect to kinetic energy (dC/dE). AES spectra vs. kinetic energy for pristine and after-switching RRAM devices. The spectra are from a typical via size of 0.4 × 0.4 μm2 and measured inside the middle of via regions (open blue square symbols for pristine and yellow solid triangle symbols for switched devices). An oxygen-deficient TaOx layer is observed after few switching cycles, confirming oxygen-deficient TaOx filament formation after SET.
Prakash et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2014 9:125 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-9-125