The morphology and cytoskeleton of HeLa cells at different time points after the PDT. (a) Control cells. (b) TiO2-treated cells. (c) N-TiO2-treated cells (scale bar, 20 μm). Cells were incubated with 100-μg/ml TiO2 or N-TiO2 under light-free conditions for 2 h before the PDT and then fixed at 15 min and 60 min after the PDT, respectively. The cells were stained with Alexa Fluor® 488 phalloidin for F-actin.
Li et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:96 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-96