Morphological changes of human normal pancreatic beta cells, as detected by AFM. Treated with D-PBS (A1 to A4), high-glucose medium for 1 h (B1 to B4), high-glucose medium for 30 min (C1 to C4), low-glucose medium for 1 (D1 to D4), low-glucose medium for 30 min (E1 to E4). A1, B1, C1, D1, and E1 show the morphology of the whole cell; A3, B3, C3, D3, and E3 show surface ultrastructures on corresponding cells in images A2, B2, C2, D2, and E2; A4, B4, C4, D4, and E4 show 3D structures of the cells.
Shi et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:90 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-90