Schematic of the fabrication steps. AFM operates in contact mode in a liquid media (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene), depending on the bias applied; the deposited thin film is composed of silicon dioxide (local anodic oxidation) or graphitic carbon (solvent decomposition). In the case of oxidation, the pattern can be used as a mask for Si dry etching producing high aspect ratio features.
Lorenzoni et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:75 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-75