SpringerOpen Newsletter

Receive periodic news and updates relating to SpringerOpen.

Open Access Open Badges Nano Express

Effects of annealing on performances of 1.3-μm InAs-InGaAs-GaAs quantum dot electroabsorption modulators

Shuh Ying Lee1*, Soon Fatt Yoon1, Andrew CY Ngo2 and Tina Guo3

Author affiliations

1 Division of Microelectronics, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, S1-B2c-21, Singapore, 639798, Singapore

2 Patterning and Fabrication Capability Group, Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, Singapore, 117602, Singapore

3 Temasek Laboratories at NTU, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 639798, Singapore

For all author emails, please log on.

Citation and License

Nanoscale Research Letters 2013, 8:59  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-59

Published: 6 February 2013


In this work, we investigated the effects of quantum dot (QD) annealing (as-grown, 600°C-annealed, and 750°C-annealed) on the preliminary performances of 1.3-μm InAs-InGaAs-GaAs quantum dot electroabsorption modulators (QD-EAMs). Both extinction ratio and insertion loss were found to vary inversely with the annealing temperature. Most importantly, the 3-dB response of the 750°C-annealed lumped-element QD-EAM was found to be 1.6 GHz at zero reverse bias voltage - the lowest reverse bias voltage reported. We believe that this work will be beneficial to researchers working on on-chip integration of QD-EAMs with other devices since energy consumption will be an important consideration.

Quantum dot; Electroabsorption modulator; Lumped element; Annealing; Interdiffusion; 85.35.Be, 42.79.Hp, 81.40.Ef