Change in the rutile and anatase lattice constant and rutile fraction. (a,b) The rutile/anatase TiO2c-axis length changed monotonously with increasing TM content following Vegard's law. The solid lines are the linear fitting results to guide the eyes. (c) Fractions of the rutile content as a function of dopant content for the TM-doped TiO2 films (left); evolution of the optical band gap of TM-doped TiO2 films with dopant content with error bar (right).
Tian et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:533 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-533