Table 2

Description of evidence for health effects of nano-TiO2 from mice and rats models
Reference Exposed routes Diameter (nm) Dose Time Main results
[36] Digestive tract 25~155 5 g/kg 2 weeks Transported to other tissues and organs
[7] Respiratory tract 21 42 mg/m3 8 to 18 days Lung inflammation and neurobehavioral toxicity
[37] Respiratory tract 10/100 500 μg/mouse 30 days Pathological lesions in the brain and neurotoxicity.
[38] Intraperitoneal 5 5~150 mg/kg 14 days Liver toxicity, inflammation, and apoptosis
[39] Respiratory tract 25 1.25 mg 7 days Lung toxicities and presence of aggregates or agglomerates
[40] Skin 4/60 5% TiO2 60 days Retained in the stratum corneum and the basal cells
[41] Intraperitoneal 5 5~150 mg/kg 14 days Liver DNA cleavage and hepatocyte apoptosis
[42] Intraperitoneal 100 324~2592 mg/kg 7/14 days The toxicity of the liver, kidney, lung, and spleen
[43] Intraperitoneal 5 5~150 mg/kg 14 days Caused serious damage to the liver and kidney
[44] Respiratory tract <10 5~500 μg 24 h Induce lung inflammation
[45] Respiratory tract 34.8 550 μg/m3 4 h Do not induce lung inflammation
[46] Digestive tract 20 to 30 5 g/kg 14 days Liver and kidney toxicity
[47] Intraperitoneal 30 200~500 mg/kg 17 days Liver, kidney, and male productive toxicity
[25] Intraperitoneal 21 300 mg/kg 18 h Lung and liver damage
[48] Intraperitoneal 30 300 mg/kg 18 h/10 days No histopathological change in the tissue
[49] Intraperitoneal 20~40 4.876~120.7 mg/kg 14 days Liver damage
[50] Respiratory tract 25 1~10 mg/kg 10 days Lung damage
[51] Intraperitoneal 30 200~500 mg/kg 17 days Slight damages in the liver, kidney, and heart
[52] Digestive tract 20 to 30 5 g/kg 14 days Liver and kidney toxicity
[53] Respiratory tract 10 1,500 mg/m3 7~28 days Increased in pulmonary inflammation
[54] Caudal vein 20 to 100 0.1~0.8 mg/ml 5 days Induce DNA damage of the liver and kidney
[55] Digestive tract 4 5 g/kg 14 days No change in coefficients of the organs
[56] Intraperitoneal 6.9 5~150 mg/kg 14 days Induced kidney toxicity
[57] Respiratory tract 15 1~10 mg/kg 7~days Lung injury, changed the enzyme activities
[58] Caudal vein 5 0.24 μg/mouse 1~48 h Increase content of Ti in the liver, lung, and spleen
[59] Respiratory tract 80 - 1 month Distribution of Ti in the neural system
[60] Respiratory tract 50 0.5~50 mg/kg 7 days Induced oxidative stress in the liver and kidney
[61] Respiratory tract 20~30 3.5~17.5 mg/kg 5 weeks Lung damage, oxidative effects, inflammation
[62] Intraperitoneal 62 1~15 mg/kg 21 days Nephrotoxicity and tubular damages
[63] Respiratory tract 5 0.8~20 mg/kg 7 days Liver and lung damage
[64] Respiratory tract 5~10 0.4~40 mg/kg 7 days Changed enzyme activities
[65] Respiratory tract 25.1 2~50 mg/m3 5 days Enzyme activities and induced lung toxicity
[66] Respiratory tract 28.4 5 mg/kg 1 weeks Lung damage
[67] Respiratory tract 5 0.8~20 mg/kg 7 days Aggregate in the lung and kidney
[68] Respiratory tract 5, 21, 50 0.5~50 mg/kg 7 days Pulmonary toxicity
[69] Respiratory tract 20 to 30 3.5~17.5 mg/kg 5 weeks Immune system toxicity

Chang et al.

Chang et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:51   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-51

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