Table 1

Description of evidence for health effects of nano-TiO2 from cells models
Reference Biological model Diameter (nm) Time (h) Dose Main results
[9] U937 100 24~48 0.005~4 mg/ml Apoptotic and necrotic modifications
[10] A549 63 4~18 80 μg/ml DNA damage
[11] A549/NCI-H1299 20 24 0.3~1,000 μg/ml Aggregated
[12] CHO/293 T 10~60 24 25~325 μg/ml Genotoxicity
[13] BEAS-2B 5 24 100 μg/ml Increases cytokines IL-6 and IL-8
[14] HDF/A549 3.2~10 48 0.3~3,000 μg/ml Cytotoxicity and inflammation
[15] U973 20 12~24 0.625~20 μg/ml Transcriptional change of TIMP-1
[16] BGC-823 20 24~72 100~800 mg/L Cytotoxicity and inhibited growth
[17] NIH3 T3/HFW 15 24~72 0.0005~50 μg/ml Cytotoxicity and ROS
[18] WIL2-NS 8.2 6~48 26~130 μg/ml Cause genotoxicity and cytotoxicity
[19] PC12 cells 21 6~48 1~100 μg/ml ROS and apoptosis
[20] lymphocytes 25 1~48 20~100 μg/ml Induced genotoxicity
[21] MC3T3-E1 5/32 24~72 5~500 μg/ml Cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory
[22] Hela cells 80 × 10 12 0.1~1.6 mg/ml Cytotoxicity and OS-mediated
[23] THP-1 cells 10 to 40 24 0.1~1.6 mg/ml Reactive oxygen
[24] HDMEC 70 24~72 5~50 μg/ml No cytotoxicity and inflammatory
[25] CHL 21 24/72 0.025~1.00 mg/ml Cytotoxicity
[26] HLF 21/80 24/48 5~80 mg/L Inhibit GJIC
[27] A549 5 to 10 6 25~200 μg/ml DNA damage
[28] Red cells 15 3 1.25~20.0 g/L MDA generations and hemolytic
[29] A549 25 1~24 100 μg/ml ROS and inhibit the growth
[30] BGC-823 20 24 0.1~0.4 mg/ml Increased ROS levels
[31] HaCaT 20 to 35 4 10~300 μg/ml Damaged structure and inhibited growth
[32] A549 5 24~72 5~160 μg/ml Induced ROS
[33] L929 20 to 100 24~72 50~200 μg/ml No cell proliferation and apoptosis
[34] 293 T and CHO 10 24 10~500 μg/ml Induced cell apoptosis
[35] HaCaT 4~60 24 10~200 mg/ml Cytotoxicity and apoptosis

BEAS, Human bronchial epithelial cells; CHL, Classical Hodgkin lymphoma; HDMEC, Human dermal microvascular endothelial cells; GJIC, Gap junctional intercellular communication; HDL, human diploid fibroblast; HLF, Human lactoferrin; OS, Oxidative stress; NS, Nervous system; ROS, Reactive oxygen species.

Chang et al.

Chang et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:51   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-51

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