SEM and AFM images of Al patterns after annealing. SEM images of the morphology of the Al patterns on sapphire substrates after annealing for 24 h at 450 °C and 1 h at 1,200°C (a) and 1,000°C (b). AFM image of Al patterns after dual-stage annealing for 24 h at 450°C and 1 h at 1,000°C (c).
Cui et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:472 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-472