Temperature dependence of infrared fluorescence from Tm3+:YCl3. Normalized fluorescence intensity versus temperature between 300 and 500 K for Tm3+:YCl3. The fluorescence intensity of the 3 F4 level at 300 K is normalized to 1. The sample has a Tm3+ concentration of 0.7 × 1020 ions/cm3.
Ganem and Bowman Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:455 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-455