Surface morphology of TaNxwith AFM imaging. (a) AFM mapping of the TaNx film on Au substrate reveals smooth round-shaped nanoislands. (b) The corresponding histogram shows that the average roughness is 48 nm. (c) AFM mapping of the TaNx film on Si substrate reveals grainy nanoislands with high roughness consisting of smaller nanoparticles. (d) The distribution of the film’s roughness is shown with average of 248 nm.
Spyropoulos-Antonakakis et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:432 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-432