Electroforming process and filament diameter control. (a) Pulsed resistance-voltage curve of the two-step forming scheme (red) compared with the common forming scheme (blue). Small conducting filament formation is confirmed by its high resistance after step 2. (b) Schematics of the Ta2O5-δ resistive switching layer during the two-step forming process. Oxygen vacancies are generated in the Ta2O5-δ layer after step 1, and a conducting filament is formed by applying a negative pulse in step 2 .
Prakash et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:418 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-418