Temperature dependence of the resistivity of the 521-nm-diameter bismuth nanowire. (a) Temperature dependence of the resistivity for the bismuth nanowire measured with various electrode combinations. The inset of (a) shows the temperature dependence of the difference in resistivity from the four-wire method [A(I+)6(I−)-2(V+)4(V−)]. (b) Temperature dependence of the resistivity for the bismuth nanowire measured at various electric currents. The inset of (b) shows the dependence of the temperature on the current from that at 100 nA. The numbers and letters which denote electrodes utilized for resistance measurements are shown with respect to the following rules: [α(I+)β(I−)-γ(V+)δ(V−)] for the four-wire method and [ϵ(I+,V+)-ζ(I−,V−)] for the two-wire method.
Murata and Hasegawa Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:400 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-400