The morphology and structure characterization of ATO and ATO-H. (a) A side view of ATO nanotube film after second-step anodization. Inset of (a) shows an enlarged image indicating a smooth tube wall. (b) A TEM image of ATO nanotubes. (c) XRD patterns of pristine ATO and ATO-H-10 films. Inset of (c) shows the photographs of ATO and ATO-H nanotube powders. (d) Raman spectra of the pristine ATO and ATO-H nanotubes with different processing time (5, 10, and 30 s).
Xu et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:391 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-391