TEM and HRTEM images of IrOx/TaOx/W stack with via-hole structure and size of 2 × 2 μm. (a) TEM image. (b) HRTEM image outside of active region. The TaOx film is approximately 9 nm thick and amorphous. (c) HRTEM image in the active region. A WOx layer with a thickness of approximately 5 nm is formed inside the hole region.
Prakash et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:379 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-379