Thermal conductivities of both nonporous and nanoporous Bi thin films. (a) Experimental setup and circuit (left side) and corresponding circuit (right side), equipped with thermal management and electrical measurement systems for thermal conductivity measurements via the 3ω method at room temperature. (b) Linear regions of the third-harmonic voltage versus the applied frequency at various applied ac currents ranging from 5 to 10 μA. (c) Thermal conductivities of nonporous Bi thin films in terms of applied ac currents.
Kim et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:371 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-371