Diagram of nanoporous Bi samples and image of the narrow metal strips. (a) Processing diagram of nanoporous Bi samples, consisting of four-point-probe electrodes for measuring the thermal conductivity. (b) Optical image of the narrow metal strips (Ti/Au = 10/300 nm) representing the four-point electrodes acting as a heater wire and probe pads.
Kim et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:371 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-371