Standard bulk heterojunction cell, conventional hybrid cell, and ideal representation of our conformal nanoarchitecture. (a) Standard bulk heterojunction cell with optimum blend layer (200- to 300-nm thick) and planar hole-blocking layer (Thick/flat). (b) Conventional hybrid cell design with a thick blend filling the nanostructured hole-blocking layer (Thick/NR). (c, d) Ideal representation of the conformal nanoarchitecture (Thin/NR) evaluated in this work.
Iza et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:359 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-359