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Open Access Nano Express

A hot hole-programmed and low-temperature-formed SONOS flash memory

Yuan-Ming Chang12, Wen-Luh Yang1, Sheng-Hsien Liu12, Yu-Ping Hsiao12, Jia-Yo Wu34 and Chi-Chang Wu5*

Author affiliations

1 Department of Electronic Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan

2 Ph.D. Program in Electrical and Communications Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan

3 Department of Dentistry, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei 110, Taiwan

4 School of Dentistry, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan

5 Graduate Institute of Biomedical Materials and Tissue Engineering, College of Oral Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan

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Citation and License

Nanoscale Research Letters 2013, 8:340  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-340

Published: 31 July 2013


In this study, a high-performance TixZrySizO flash memory is demonstrated using a sol–gel spin-coating method and formed under a low annealing temperature. The high-efficiency charge storage layer is formed by depositing a well-mixed solution of titanium tetrachloride, silicon tetrachloride, and zirconium tetrachloride, followed by 60 s of annealing at 600°C. The flash memory exhibits a noteworthy hot hole trapping characteristic and excellent electrical properties regarding memory window, program/erase speeds, and charge retention. At only 6-V operation, the program/erase speeds can be as fast as 120:5.2 μs with a 2-V shift, and the memory window can be up to 8 V. The retention times are extrapolated to 106 s with only 5% (at 85°C) and 10% (at 125°C) charge loss. The barrier height of the TixZrySizO film is demonstrated to be 1.15 eV for hole trapping, through the extraction of the Poole-Frenkel current. The excellent performance of the memory is attributed to high trapping sites of the low-temperature-annealed, high-κ sol–gel film.

Sol–gel; Hole trapping; Flash memory