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The fabrication of white light-emitting diodes using the n-ZnO/NiO/p-GaN heterojunction with enhanced luminescence

Mazhar Ali Abbasi*, Zafar Hussain Ibupoto, Mushtaque Hussain, Omer Nur and Magnus Willander

Author affiliations

Department of Science and Technology, Physical Electronics and Nanotechnology Division, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, Norrkoping, 60174, Sweden

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Citation and License

Nanoscale Research Letters 2013, 8:320  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-320

Published: 13 July 2013

Abstract

Cheap and efficient white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are of great interest due to the energy crisis all over the world. Herein, we have developed heterojunction LEDs based on the well-aligned ZnO nanorods and nanotubes on the p-type GaN with the insertion of the NiO buffer layer that showed enhancement in the light emission. Scanning electron microscopy have well demonstrated the arrays of the ZnO nanorods and the proper etching into the nanotubes. X-ray diffraction study describes the wurtzite crystal structure array of ZnO nanorods with the involvement of GaN at the (002) peak. The cathodoluminescence spectra represent strong and broad visible emission peaks compared to the UV emission and a weak peak at 425 nm which is originated from GaN. Electroluminescence study has shown highly improved luminescence response for the LEDs fabricated with NiO buffer layer compared to that without NiO layer. Introducing a sandwich-thin layer of NiO between the n-type ZnO and the p-type GaN will possibly block the injection of electrons from the ZnO to the GaN. Moreover, the presence of NiO buffer layer might create the confinement effect.

Keywords:
White light-emitting diode; ZnO nanorods; Nanotubes; NiO buffer layer