Fabrication of tin-filled carbon nanofibres by microwave plasma vapour deposition and their in situ heating observation by environmental transmission electron microscopy
1 Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603, Japan
2 Department of Frontier Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso Showa, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8555, Japan
3 Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayaha University, 3-1-1, Tsushima-naka, Kita-ku, Okayama-shi, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
Nanoscale Research Letters 2013, 8:302 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-302Published: 28 June 2013
Sn-filled carbon nanofibres (CNFs) are fabricated by microwave plasma chemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed the existence of a Sn island under the CNFs. The structure of the CNFs is investigated, and the behaviour of Sn in the internal space of CNFs is revealed by performing in situ heating observations by environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM). ETEM observations reveal that they have low-crystallized carbon wall and Sn occupies not only the CNF’s internal space but also its carbon wall. The Sn inside the CNF is completely covered by the carbon wall. Further, the in situ heating observations reveal that Sn within the internal space and the carbon wall of the CNFs diffused to the outside during heating. Moreover, it is found that higher membered carbon rings and defects in the graphite layer act as diffusion routes between disordered carbon layers.