Effects of NP size and concentration on the SHC of the nanofluid. The cross mark at 0 vol.% is the SHC of the molten salt without doping with NPs (measured using model Q20 of TA). The red dash and blue dash-dot lines show the model prediction using Equation 1 for 13- and 90-nm alumina NPs at various volume fractions. The red solid squares and blue open squares are the experimental results of the SHCs of the nanofluids having 13- and 90-nm alumina NPs at 0.9, 2.7, and 4.6 vol.%, respectively. The red solid line and blue dash line are the model predictions considering the nanolayer effect on the SHC of the nanofluid (Equation 5).
Lu and Huang Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:292 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-292