Average density variations with nanoparticle concentration and pressure. (a) Enhancement of the density in relation to the base fluid (100 × (ρnf− ρ0)/ρ0) vs. concentration (wt.%) for both nanocrystalline structures. (b) Density diminutions with temperature (−100 × (Δρ)/ρ) vs. pressure (p) for the base fluid and both nanocrystalline structures. Cross mark, base fluid; diamond, A-TiO2/EG; triangle, R-TiO2/EG.
Cabaleiro et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:286 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-286