IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-4, and TNF-α in spleens of mice treated with carbon dots. Western blot was used to measure the levels of cytokines. Compared with the saline group, the expression levels of four cytokines did not have any obvious change in the three carbon dot-treated groups both on the first and ninth days post exposure.
Gao et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:276 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-276