Schematic fabrication process and top-view scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of AAM. (a) Schematic fabrication process of hexagonally ordered porous AAM. (b) Top-view SEM image of 1.5-μm-pitch Al concave structure after the removal of the first anodization layer. (c) Top-view SEM image of 1.5-μm-pitch AAM after the second anodization, with the cross-sectional view showing cone-shape opening in the inset.
Lin et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:268 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-268