AFM images of the evaporated Au layers at different temperatures. AFM images of the evaporated Au layers on glass with room temperature (first column, RT) and the same samples consequently annealed at 300°C (second column, annealed). The thicknesses of evaporated Au were 7, 18, and 35 nm. Ra is the arithmetic mean surface roughness in nanometers.
Schaub et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:249 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-249