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Profile measurement of concave spherical mirror and a flat mirror using a high-speed nanoprofiler

Koji Usuki1*, Takao Kitayama1, Hiroki Matsumura1, Takuya Kojima1, Junichi Uchikoshi1, Yasuo Higashi2 and Katsuyoshi Endo3

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

2 Applied Research Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801, Japan

3 Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

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Nanoscale Research Letters 2013, 8:231  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-231

Published: 16 May 2013


Ultraprecise aspheric mirrors that offer nanofocusing and high coherence are indispensable for developing third-generation synchrotron radiation and X-ray free-electron laser sources. In industry, the extreme ultraviolet (wavelength: 13.5 nm) lithography used for high-accuracy aspheric mirrors is a promising technology for fabricating semiconductor devices. In addition, ultraprecise mirrors with a radius of curvature of less than 10 mm are needed in many digital video instruments. We developed a new type of nanoprofiler that traces the normal vector of a mirror's surface. The principle of our measuring method is that the normal vector at each point on the surface is determined by making the incident light beam on the mirror surface and the reflected beam at that point coincide, using two sets of two pairs of goniometers and one linear stage. From the acquired normal vectors and their coordinates, the three-dimensional shape is calculated by a reconstruction algorithm. The characteristics of the measuring method are as follows: the profiler uses the straightness of laser light without using a reference surface. Surfaces of any shape can be measured, and there is no limit on the aperture size. We calibrated this nanoprofiler by considering the system error resulting from the assembly error and encoder scale error, and evaluated the performance at the nanometer scale. We suppressed the effect of random errors by maintaining the temperature in a constant-temperature room within ±0.01°C. We measured a concave spherical mirror with a radius of curvature of 400 mm and a flat mirror and compared the results with those obtained using a Fizeau interferometer. The profiles of the mirrors were consistent within the range of system errors.

Profiler; Direct measurement; Normal vector; Ultraprecision mirror; Aspheric mirror; Slope error; Five-axis simultaneous control; Ultraprecision machining