Emission of dislocations. The emission of dislocations in the subsurface during nanoindentation beneath the machining-induced surface along the  and  crystal orientations. (a1) and (b1), along the  cutting direction; (a2) and (b2), along the  cutting direction.
Zhang et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:211 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-211