Sequence of instantaneous defect evolution versus indentation penetration depth. The sequence of instantaneous defect evolution from the nucleation of dislocation into the formation of dislocation embryos versus indentation penetration depth with top view and front view. (a1) and (b1), 0 nm; (a2) and (b2), 0.5 nm; (a3) and (b3), 1.0 nm; (a4) and (b4), 1.5 nm, respectively. (c1) to (c4) and (d1) to (d4) present a universal process of the dislocation evolution.
Zhang et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:211 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-211