SpringerOpen Newsletter

Receive periodic news and updates relating to SpringerOpen.

This article is part of the series The Fifth International Symposium on Atomically Controlled Fabrication Technology.

Open Access Open Badges Nano Idea

Essentially exact ground-state calculations by superpositions of nonorthogonal Slater determinants

Hidekazu Goto*, Masashi Kojo, Akira Sasaki and Kikuji Hirose

Author affiliations

Department of Precision Science and Technology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan

For all author emails, please log on.

Citation and License

Nanoscale Research Letters 2013, 8:200  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-200

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200

Received:31 October 2012
Accepted:15 January 2013
Published:1 May 2013

© 2013 Goto et al.; licensee Springer.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


An essentially exact ground-state calculation algorithm for few-electron systems based on superposition of nonorthogonal Slater determinants (SDs) is described, and its convergence properties to ground states are examined. A linear combination of SDs is adopted as many-electron wave functions, and all one-electron wave functions are updated by employing linearly independent multiple correction vectors on the basis of the variational principle. The improvement of the convergence performance to the ground state given by the multi-direction search is shown through comparisons with the conventional steepest descent method. The accuracy and applicability of the proposed scheme are also demonstrated by calculations of the potential energy curves of few-electron molecular systems, compared with the conventional quantum chemistry calculation techniques.

Ground-state calculation; Nonorthogonal Slater determinants; Superposition; Few-electron system; Multiple correction vector


In recent years, there have been many significant achievements regarding electronic structure calculations in the fields of computational physics and chemistry. However, theoretical and methodological approaches for providing practical descriptions and tractable calculation schemes of the electron–electron correlation energy with continuously controllable accuracy still remain as significant issues [1-15]. Although density functional theory (DFT) supplies a computationally economical and practical method, there are many unexplored problems raised by unreliable results obtained for some systems in which highly accurate electron–electron correlation energy calculations are required, since results by DFT depend significantly on the exchange-correlation energy functional used to perform the calculation [16-18].

The available quantitatively reliable methods require higher computational costs than the DFT method [18]. Although quantum Monte Carlo methods [19-23] can be applied to molecular and crystal systems and show good quantitative reliability where extremely high-accuracy calculations are required, difficulties in calculating forces for optimizing atomic configurations are a considerable disadvantage and inhibit this method from becoming a standard molecular dynamics calculation technique. Configuration interaction (CI), coupled cluster, and Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation methods, each of which use a linear combination of orthogonalized Slater determinants (SDs) as many-electron wave functions, are standard computational techniques in quantum chemistry by which highly accurate results are obtained [24], despite suffering from basis set superposition and basis set incompleteness errors. The full CI calculation can perform an exact electron–electron correlation energy calculation in a space given by an arbitrary basis set. However, it is only applicable for small molecules with modest basis sets since the required number of SDs grows explosively on the order of the factorial of the number of basis.

The required number of SDs in order to determine ground-state energies can be drastically decreased by employing nonorthogonal SDs as a basis set. The resonating Hartree-Fock method proposed by Fukutome utilizes nonorthogonal SDs, and many noteworthy results have been reported [25-30]. Also, Imada and co-workers [31-33] and Kojo and Hirose [34,35] employed nonorthogonal SDs in path integral renormalization group calculations. Goto and co-workers developed the direct energy minimization method using nonorthogonal SDs [36-39] based on the real-space finite-difference formalism [40,41]. In these previous studies, steepest descent directions and acceleration parameters are calculated to update one-electron wave functions on the basis of a variational principle [25-30,36-39]. Although the steepest descent direction guarantees a secure approach to the ground state, a more effective updating process might be performed in a multi-direction search.

In the present study, a calculation algorithm showing an arbitrary set of linearly independent correction vectors is employed to optimize one-electron wave functions with Gaussian basis sets. Since the dimension of the search space depends on the number of linearly independent correction vectors, a sufficient number of correction vectors ensure effective optimization, and the iterative updating of all the one-electron wave functions leads to smooth convergence to the ground states. The primary purpose of this article is to demonstrate the advantage of using multiple correction vectors in searching for the ground state over the conventional steepest descent search in which only one correction vector is used. As a demonstration of the accuracy and applicability of the proposed calculation algorithm, essentially exact potential energy curves of few-electron molecular systems with long interatomic distances are described for cases where the conventional calculation methods of quantum chemistry fail.

The organization of the article is as follows. In the ‘Optimization algorithm’ section, the proposed calculation algorithm for constructing a basis set of nonorthogonal SDs by updating one-electron wave functions with multiple correction vectors is described. The expression of the conventional steepest descent direction with a Gaussian basis set is also given for comparison. The convergence characteristics to the ground states of few-electron systems for calculations using single and multiple correction vectors are illustrated in the ‘Applications to few-electron molecular systems’ section. As demonstrations of the proposed calculation procedure, the convergence properties to the ground states of few-electron atomic and molecular systems are also shown. Finally, a summary of the present study is given in the ‘Conclusions’ section.

Optimization algorithm

The calculation procedures for constructing a basis set consisting of nonorthogonal SDs for N-electron systems using single and multiple correction vectors are described here. An N-electron wave function ψ(r1, σ1, r2, σ2,…, rN, σN) is expressed by a linear combination of nonorthogonal SDs as follows:

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M1','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M1">View MathML</a>


Here, ri and σt denote the position and spin index of the ith electron, respectively. L is the number of SDs, and ΦA(r1, σ1, r2, σ2,…, rN, σN) is the Ath SD, given by

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M2','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M2">View MathML</a>


<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M3','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M3">View MathML</a>


with ϕiA(r) and γi(σi) being nonorthogonal and unnormalized one-electron basis functions and spin orbital functions, respectively. The one-electron wave function ϕiA(r) is constructed as a linear combination of Gaussian basis functions xs(r) [24] as

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M4','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M4">View MathML</a>


Here, M and Di,sA are the number of basis functions and the sth expansion coefficient for the ith one-electron wave function ϕiA(r), respectively.

The steepest direction is implemented in the expression of the total energy functional E of the target system on the basis of the variational principle, without the constraints of orthogonality and normalization on the one-electron wave functions. The updating procedure of the pth one-electron wave function belongs to the Ath SD which is represented as

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M5','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M5">View MathML</a>


where apA is the acceleration parameter, which is determined by the variational principle with respect to the total energy E, i.e., [28]

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M6','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M6">View MathML</a>


The component of the steepest descent vector Kp,mA is given by

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M7','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M7">View MathML</a>



<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M8','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M8">View MathML</a>


<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M9','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M9">View MathML</a>



<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M10','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M10">View MathML</a>


Here, <a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M11','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M11">View MathML</a> denotes the element of the jth row and ith column of the matrix <a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M12','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M12">View MathML</a>. The overlap integral matrix SAB is defined by

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M13','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M13">View MathML</a>


where the elements SijAB are the overlap integrals between the one-electron basis functions, i.e.,

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M14','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M14">View MathML</a>


<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M15','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M15">View MathML</a>

and <a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M16','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M16">View MathML</a> are the matrix elements of the Hamiltonians,

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M17','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M17">View MathML</a>



<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M18','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M18">View MathML</a>


respectively. Here, V(r) stands for an external potential.

The proposed calculation procedure employs linearly independent multiple correction vectors for updating the one-electron wave function. The pth one-electron wave function in the Ath SD is updated by

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M19','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M19">View MathML</a>


where Cj(j = 1, 2,…, L + Nc) and Nc are the expansion coefficient and the number of correction vectors, respectively. The components of the correction vectors Gμ,mA determine Nc linearly independent correction functions ξμ(r) which are defined as linear combinations of Gaussian basis functions as

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M20','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M20">View MathML</a>


Since the linearly independent correction vectors can be given arbitrarily, randomly chosen values are employed in the present study. A larger number of correction vectors Nc realize a larger volume search space; however, the number of the linearly independent vectors Nc is restricted to the dimension of the space defined by the basis set used.

Thus, we have a linear combination of L + Nc SDs as the new N-electron wave function

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M21','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M21">View MathML</a>



<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M22','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M22">View MathML</a>


Figure 1 illustrates the flow of the present calculation procedure. Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) solutions for a target system are used for initial one-electron wave functions. The coefficients <a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M23','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/200/mathml/M23">View MathML</a> of Equation 17 are given by solving the generalized eigenvalue equations obtained by employing the variational principle applied to the total energy, and we can have a new N-electron wave function as a linear combination of L SDs as shown in Equation 17. Iteration of the above updating process for all the one-electron wave functions of all SDs increasing the number of the SDs’ L leads to an essentially exact numerical solution of the ground state.

thumbnailFigure 1. Flow of the present algorithm.

Applications to few-electron molecular systems

Convergence performances for searching for the ground state of a C atom with the 6-31G** basis set are shown in Figure 2. The UHF solutions are adopted as initial states, and the number of employed SDs is 30. The steepest descent direction and acceleration parameter are adopted for the calculation using one correction vector (Nc =1), and seven randomly chosen linearly independent correction vectors are added to the steepest descent correction to create a calculation with eight correction vectors (Nc =8). An indispensable advantage of the multi-direction search over the single steepest descent direction search is clearly demonstrated. Although the steepest descent vector gives the direction with the largest gradient, it does not necessarily point toward the global energy minimum state. On the contrary, a linear combination of multiple correction vectors can be used to obtain the minimum energy state within the given space by adopting the variation principle.

thumbnailFigure 2. Effectiveness of multi-direction search on total energy convergence. Effectiveness of multi-direction search on total energy convergence as a function of the number of iterations for a C atom with the 6-31G** basis set is shown.

Figure 3 illustrates the convergence performance of the proposed method for the electron–electron correlation energy of a HF molecule with the 6-31G** basis set as a function of the number of employed SDs. Calculated correlation energies are shown by ratios to exact ones obtained by full CI. The convergence performance to the exact ground state is improved by increasing the number of correction vectors, since the volume of the search space for a one-electron wave function increase with increasing Nc. The essentially exact ground-state energy is obtained using less than 100 nonorthogonal SDs with an error of 0.001%, compared with the exact value in which 99.5% of the electron–electron correlation energy is counted. The obtained convergence is so smooth that the accuracy of the total energy is controllable by adjusting the number of employed SDs. On the other hand, the full CI method requires over 108 orthogonal SDs, and thus the reduction in the numbers of SDs is a significant advantage of adopting nonorthogonal SDs. The ground-state energy obtained by the proposed method does not depend on the components of the correction vectors; however, the rate of convergence does depend on the number of employed correction vectors Nc.

thumbnailFigure 3. Convergence performance of the proposed method for the correlation energy. Convergence performance of the proposed method for the correlation energy of a HF molecule with the 6-31G** basis set as a function of the number of employed SDs is shown.

The potential energy curve calculated when a single H atom is extracted from a CH4 molecule as shown in Figure 4. Calculations are performed using the 6-31G* basis set. Although the bond lengths are close to the equilibrium one, the errors in the energies obtained by coupled-cluster theory with singles and doubles (CCSD) plus perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) are a few milliHartree; at longer bond lengths, the accuracy of the results appears to deteriorate [42]. In contrast, the proposed calculation procedure ensures essentially exact ground states at all bond lengths, since no approximations are employed.

thumbnailFigure 4. Potential energy curve of a CH4 molecule obtained using the proposed algorithm with 6-31G* basis set.

Figure 5 illustrates the potential energy curve along the symmetric stretching coordinate of a H2O molecule in the 3-21G basis set. The angle between the O-H bonds is fixed at 107.6°. These results shown for the proposed calculation method, CCSD and CCSD(T) exhibit the same trends as for a CH4 molecule. The results for near the equilibrium bond length demonstrate comparable performance between the four methods, whereas results for long bond lengths indicate only that the proposed method has comparable performance with full CI not producing the same unphysical energy curves as CCSD and CCSD(T) around 2.3 Å [42].

thumbnailFigure 5. Potential energy curve of a H2O molecule obtained using the proposed algorithm with 3-21G basis set.


A reliable and tractable technique for constructing the ground-state wave function by the superposition of nonorthogonal SDs is described. Linear independent multiple correction vectors are employed in order to update one-electron wave functions, and a conventional steepest descent method is also performed as a comparison. The dependence of convergence performance on the number of adopted correction vectors is also illustrated. The electron–electron correlation energy converges rapidly and smoothly to the ground state through the multi-direction search, and an essentially exact ground-state energy is obtained with drastically fewer SDs (less than 100 SDs in the present study) compared with the number required in the full CI method. For the few-electron molecular systems considered in the present study, essentially exact electron–electron correlation energies can be calculated even at long bond lengths for which the standard single-reference CCSD and CCSD(T) show poor results, and the practicality and applicability of the proposed calculation procedure have been clearly demonstrated. In future studies, calculations employing periodic boundary conditions and effective core potentials (ECPs) [43] will be performed. A new procedure to reduce the iteration cost should be found in order to increase the applicability of the proposed algorithm for the calculation of essentially exact ground-state energies of many-electron systems.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

HG conceived, planned this study, carried out the coding of the computation program, and drafted the manuscript. MK and KH participated in the discussions on the basic theory of the present method. AS performed tunings of the code and made all of calculations. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.


The present study was partially supported by a Grant-in-Aid for the Global COE Program ‘Center of Excellence for Atomically Controlled Fabrication Technology’ (grant no. H08), a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas ‘Materials Design through Computics: Complex Correlation and Non-Equilibrium Dynamics’ (grant no. 22104008), a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research in Priority Areas ‘Carbon Nanotube Nano-Electronics’ (grant no. 19054009) and a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) ‘Design of Nanostructure Electrode by Electron Transport Simulation for Electrochemical Processing’ (grant no. 21360063) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) of Japan.


  1. Palmer IJ, Brown WB, Hillier IH: Simulation of the charge transfer absorption of the H2O/O2 van der Waals complex using high level ab initio calculations.

    J Chem Phys 1996, 104:3198. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  2. Kowalski K, Piecuch P: The method of moments of coupled-cluster equations and the renormalized CCSD[T], CCSD(T), CCSD(TQ), and CCSDT(Q) approaches.

    J Chem Phys 2000, 113:18. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  3. Gwaltney SR, Sherrill CD, Head-Gordon M: Second-order perturbation corrections to singles and doubles coupled-cluster methods: General theory and application to the valence optimized doubles model.

    J Chem Phys 2000, 113:3548. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  4. Tsuzuki S, Honda K, Uchimaru T, Mikami M, Tanabe K: Origin of attraction and directionality of the π/π interaction: model chemistry calculations of benzene dimer interaction.

    J Am Chem Soc 2002, 124:104. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  5. Dutta A, Sherrill CD: Full configuration interaction potential energy curves for breaking bonds to hydrogen: an assessment of single-reference correlation methods.

    J Chem Phys 2003, 118:1610. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  6. Abrams ML, Sherrill CD: Full configuration interaction potential energy curves for the X 1Σg+, B 1Δg, and B’ 1Σg+ states of C2: a challenge for approximate methods.

    J Chem Phys 2004, 121:9211. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  7. Juhasz T, Mazziotti DA: Perturbation theory corrections to the two-particle reduced density matrix variational method.

    J Chem Phys 2004, 121:1201. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  8. Rocha-Rinza T, Vico LD, Veryazov V, Roos BO: A theoretical study of singlet low-energy excited states of the benzene dimer.

    Chem Phys Lett 2006, 426:268. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  9. Du S, Francisco JS: The OH radical-H2O molecular interaction potential.

    J Chem Phys 2006, 124:224318. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  10. Benedek NA, Snook IK: Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of the dissociation energy of the water dimer.

    J Chem Phys 2006, 125:104302. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  11. Bonfanti M, Martinazzo R, Tantardini GF, Ponti A: Physisorption and diffusion of hydrogen atoms on graphite from correlated calculations on the H-coronene model system.

    J Phys Chem C 2007, 111:5825. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  12. Beaudet TD, Casula M, Kim J, Sorella S, Martin RM: Molecular hydrogen adsorbed on benzene: insights from a quantum Monte Carlo study.

    J Chem Phys 2008, 129:164711. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  13. Ma J, Michaelides A, Alfe D: Binding of hydrogen on benzene, coronene, and graphene from quantum Monte Carlo calculations.

    J Chem Phys 2011, 134:134701. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  14. Booth GH, Cleland D, Thom AJW, Alavi A: Breaking the carbon dimer: the challenges of multiple bond dissociation with full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo methods.

    J Chem Phys 2011, 135:084104. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  15. Robinson JB, Knowles P: Approximate variational coupled cluster theory.

    J Chem Phys 2011, 135:044113. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  16. Feibelman PJ, Hammer B, Norskov JK, Wagner F, Scheffler M, Stumpf R, Watwe R, Dumesic J: The CO/Pt(111) puzzle.

    J Phys Chem B 2001, 105:4018. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  17. Hu Q-M, Reuter K, Scheffler M: Towards an exact treatment of exchange and correlation in materials: application to the “CO adsorption puzzle” and other systems.

    Phys Rev Lett 2007, 98:176103. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  18. Foulkes WMC, Mitas L, Needs RJ, Rajagopal G: Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of solids.

    Rev Mod Phys 2001, 73:33. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  19. Silverstrelli PL, Baroni S, Car R: Auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo calculations for systems with long-range repulsive interactions.

    Phys Rev Lett 1993, 71:1148. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  20. Zhang S, Krakauer H, Zhang S: Quantum Monte Carlo method using phase-free random walks with Slater determinants.

    Phys Rev Lett 2003, 90:136401. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  21. Al-Saidi WA, Krakauer H, Zhang S: Auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo study of TiO and MnO molecules.

    Phys Rev B 2006, 73:075103. OpenURL

  22. Suewattana M, Purwanto W, Zhang S, Krakauer H, Walter E: Phaseless auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo calculations with plane waves and pseudopotentials: applications to atoms and molecules.

    Phys Rev B 2007, 75:245123. OpenURL

  23. Purwanto W, Krakauer H, Zhang S: Pressure-induced diamond to β-tin transition in bulk silicon: A quantum Monte Carlo study.

    Phys Rev B 2009, 80:214116. OpenURL

  24. Szabo A, Ostlund NS: Modern Quantum Chemistry: Introduction to Advanced Electronic Structure Theory. London: Macmillan; 1982. OpenURL

  25. Fukutome H: Theory of resonating quantum fluctuations in a fermion system—resonating Hartree-Fock approximation—.

    Prog Theor Phys 1988, 80:417. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  26. Ikawa A, Yamamoto S, Fukutome H: Orbital optimization in the resonating Hartree-Fock approximation and its application to the one dimensional Hubbard model.

    J Phys Soc Jpn 1993, 62:1653. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  27. Igawa A: A method of calculation of the matrix elements between the spin-projected nonorthogonal Slater determinants.

    Int J Quantum Chem 1995, 54:235. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  28. Tomita N, Ten-no S, Yanimura Y: Ab initio molecular orbital calculations by the resonating Hartree-Fock approach: superposition of non-orthogonal Slater determinants.

    Chem Phys Lett 1996, 263:687. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  29. Ten-no S: Superposition of nonorthogonal Slater determinants towards electron correlation problems.

    Theor Chem Acc 1997, 98:182. OpenURL

  30. Okunishi T, Negishi Y, Muraguchi M, Takeda K: Resonating Hartree–Fock approach for electrons confined in two dimensional square quantum dots.

    Jpn J Appl Phys 2009, 48:125002. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  31. Imada M, Kashima T: Path-integral renormalization group method for numerical study of strongly correlated electron systems.

    J Phys Soc Jpn 2000, 69:2723. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  32. Kashima T, Imada M: Path-integral renormalization group method for numerical study on ground states of strongly correlated electronic systems.

    J Phys Soc Jpn 2001, 70:2287. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  33. Noda Y, Imada M: Quantum phase transitions to charge-ordered and Wigner-crystal states under the interplay of lattice commensurability and long-range Coulomb interactions.

    Phys Rev Lett 2002, 89:176803. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  34. Kojo M, Hirose K: Path-integral renormalization group treatments for many-electron systems with long-range repulsive interactions.

    Surf Interface Anal 2008, 40:1071. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  35. Kojo M, Hirose K: First-principles path-integral renormalization-group method for Coulombic many-body systems.

    Phys Rev A 2009, 80:042515. OpenURL

  36. Goto H, Hirose K: Total-energy minimization of few-body electron systems in the real-space finite-difference scheme.

    J Phys: Condens Matter 2009, 21:064231. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  37. Goto H, Yamashiki T, Saito S, Hirose K: Direct minimization of energy functional for few-body electron systems.

    J Comput Theor Nanosci 2009, 6:2576. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  38. Goto H, Hirose K: Electron–electron correlations in square-well quantum dots: direct energy minimization approach.

    J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2011, 11:2997. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  39. Sasaki A, Kojo M, Hirose K, Goto H: Real-space finite-difference approach for multi-body systems: path-integral renormalization group method and direct energy minimization method.

    J Phys: Condens Matter 2011, 23:434001. Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  40. Chelikowsky JR, Troullier N, Saad Y: Finite-difference-pseudopotential method: electronic structure calculations without a basis.

    Phys Rev Lett 1994, 72:1240. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  41. Hirose K, Ono T, Fujimoto Y, Tsukamoto S: First-Principles Calculations in Real-Space Formalism. London: Imperial College Press; 2005. OpenURL

  42. Knowles PJ, Cooper B: A linked electron pair functional.

    J Chem Phys 2010, 133:224106. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL

  43. Trail JR, Needs RJ: Smooth relativistic Hartree–Fock pseudopotentials for H to Ba and Lu to Hg.

    J Chem Phys 2005, 122:174109. PubMed Abstract | Publisher Full Text OpenURL