Table 2

Correlations for boiling flow heat transfer coefficient
Reference Fluid composition Description Correlation
Geometry Comment Parameter range
Warrier et al. [27] FC-84 Small rectangular parallel channels of Dh = 0.75mm Single-phase forced convection and subcooled and saturated nucleate boiling 3 < x <55%

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M9','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M9">View MathML</a>

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M10','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M10">View MathML</a>

Kandlikar and Balasubramanian [28] Water, refrigerants, and cryogenic fluids Minichannels and microchannels Flow boiling x <0.7 ~ 0.8

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M11','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M11">View MathML</a>

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M12','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M12">View MathML</a>

hsp is calculated Equation 7

Sun and Mishima [29] Water, refrigerants (R11, R12, R123, R134a, R141b, R22, R404a, R407c, R410a) and CO2 Minichannel diameters from 0.21 to 6.05 mm Flow boiling laminar flow region ReL < 2,000 and ReG < 2,000

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M13','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M13">View MathML</a>

Bertsch et al. [30] Hydraulic diameters ranging from 0.16 to 2.92 mm Minichannels Flow boiling and vapor quality 0 to 1

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M14','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M14">View MathML</a>

hnb is calculated by Cooper [35]:

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M15','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M15">View MathML</a>

hsp = χv,xhsp,go + (1 − χv,x)hsp,lo (13)

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M16','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M16">View MathML</a>

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M17','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M17">View MathML</a>

Temperature −194°C to 97°C
Heat flux 4–1,150 kW/m2
Mass flux 20–3,000 kg/m2s
Lazarek and Black [31] R113 Macrochannels 3.15 mm inner diameter tube Saturated flow boiling -

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M18','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M18">View MathML</a>

Gungor and Winterton [32] Water and refrigerants (R-11, R-12, R-22, R-113, and R-114) Horizontal and vertical flows in tubes and annuli D = 3 to 32 mm Saturated and subcooled boiling flow 0.008 < psat < 203 bar; 12 < G < 61.518 kg/m2s; 0 < x < 173%; 1 < q < 91.534 kW/m2

htp = (SS2 + FF2)hsp (17)

hsp is calculated Equation 6

S = 1 + 3, 000Bo0.86 (18)

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M19','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M19">View MathML</a>

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M20','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M20">View MathML</a>

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M21','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M21">View MathML</a>

Liu and Witerton [36] Water, refrigerants and ethylene glycol Vertical and horizontal tubes, and annuli Subcooled and saturated flow boiling -

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M22','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M22">View MathML</a>

hnb is calculated by Cooper [35] (Equation 11)

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M23','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M23">View MathML</a>

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M24','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M24">View MathML</a>

Kew and Cornwell [33] R141b Single tubes of 1.39–3.69 mm inner diameter Nucleate boiling, confined bubble boiling, convective boiling, partial dry out -

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M25','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M25">View MathML</a>

Yan and Lin [34] R134a 28 parallel tubes 2 mm Convective boiling G = 50 to 200 kg/m2s; q = 0.5 to 2 W/cm2

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M26','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M26">View MathML</a>

hl = 4.364λl/Dh (27)

<a onClick="popup('http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M27','MathML',630,470);return false;" target="_blank" href="http://www.nanoscalereslett.com/content/8/1/130/mathml/M27">View MathML</a>

The best fitting values for the constants Cm,1, Cm,2, and Cm,3 are listed in Table 3

Chehade et al.

Chehade et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2013 8:130   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-8-130

Open Data