The surface morphology of non-annealed (left) and annealed (right) PLLA samples determined by AFM. The PLLA samples were deposited with Pt with thicknesses 5, 20 and 50 nm and then heated at 60°C. The thermally annealed pristine PLLA is also shown for comparison. Ra represents the arithmetic surface roughness.
Slepička et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:671 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-671