Visualizing dGNP-induced morphological changes of S. epidermidis cell membranes via TEM. (A) Morphology of the untreated S. epidermidis cells at 0 h (a); cross section of the untreated S. epidermidis cell after 12 h (b). (B) Interaction of dGNPs with S. epidermidis cell at 0 h (a); cross section of the dGNPs-treated S. epidermidis cell after 6 h showing the initiation of the cell wall disruption (b); cross section of the lysed S. epidermidis cell after 12 h of treatment with dGNPs (c).
Badwaik et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:623 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-623