Monitoring dGNPs-induced permeability of E. coli cell membranes and leakage of nucleic acids. (A) The left half shows an image in the differential interference contrast mode, while the right half shows the corresponding fluorescence image. (B) The percentage of cells with permeable membranes from five or more fields of view obtained by two independent experiments.
Badwaik et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:623 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-623