Visualization of dGNP induced morphological changes in E. coli cell membranes under the TEM. (A) Morphology of the untreated E. coli cell at 0 h (a); cross section of the untreated E. coli cell after 12 h (b). (B) Interaction of dGNPs with E. coli cell at 0 h (a); cross section of the dGNPs treated E. coli cell after 6 h showing the initiation of the cell disruption by the formation of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) (b); cross section of the lysed E. coli cell after 12 h of treatment with dGNPs (c); the magnified view of OMV formation, which represents the initiation of disruption of cell membrane (d).
Badwaik et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:623 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-623