Room-temperature hysteresis loops measured along the easy and hard magnetisation directions for the following: (a) an anisotropic 4-nm-thick Co film deposited at 54°; (b) an isotropic 4-nm-thick Co film that was normally deposited; (c) a bilayer consisting of two strongly exchange-coupled 4-nm-thick Co layers, where one layer was obliquely deposited at 54° and the other layer was normally deposited; and (d) a trilayer consisting of a 4-nm-thick Co layer deposited at 54°, a 6-nm-thick Ta spacer layer and a 4-nm-thick normally deposited Co layer. Again, the ferromagnetic Co layers are magnetically decoupled due to the effect of the Ta spacer layer. The illustrations shown in Figure 2 also correspond to these deposits.
Vergara et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:577 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-577