Impact of nanoroughness on the morphology of E. coli. Confocal microscopy images of DAPI-stained bacteria growing onto flat (A) and nanorough (B) gold substrates revealing that the total number of bacteria is almost the same between the two samples. SEM pictures of E. coli cells growing onto flat (C) and nanorough (D) gold substrates showing the loss of type-1 fimbriae expression.
Rizzello et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:575 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-575