Table 4

More details for toxicity of QDs (modified from[163])
QD Model Administration QD concentration Exposure duration Toxicity Study
CdSe/ZnS-SSA EL-4 cells 1 × 106 cells/well 0.1 to 0.4 mg/mL 0 to 24 h Cytotoxic: 0.1 mg/mL altered cell growth; most cells nonviable at 0.4 mg/mL Hoshino et al. 2004a
CdSe/ZnS-SSA EL-4 cells 200-μL cell suspension injected (iv) into the mice 0.1 mg/mL QDs per 5 × 107 cells 2 h to 7 days No toxicity in mice in vivo Hoshino et al. 2004a (in vivo)
CdSe/ZnS conjugates: NH2, OH, OH/COOH, H2/OH, MUA, COOH WTK1 cells 5 × 104 cells/mL 1 to 2 μM 12 h 2-μM QD-COOH-induced DNA damage at 2 h Hoshino et al. 2004b
CdSe/ZnS-MUA Vero, HeLa, and primary human hepatocytes 100-μL QDs/3 × 104 cells 0 to 0.4 mg/mL 24 h Cytotoxic: 0.2 mg/mL, Vero; 0.1 mg/mL, HeLa; 0.1 mg/mL, hepatocytes Shiohara et al. 2004
CdTe Rat pheochromocytoma cells, murine, microglial cells 1 × 105 cells/cm2 0.01 to 100 μg/mL 2 to 24 h 10 μg/mL cytotoxic Lovric et al. 2005
CdSe-MAA, TOPO QDs Primary rat hepatocytes 62.5-1,000 μg/mL 1 to 8 h Cytotoxic: 62.5 μg/mL cytotoxic under oxidative/photolytic conditions Derfus 2004
No toxicity on addition of ZnS cap
QD micelles: CdSe/ZnS QDs in (PEG-PE) and phosphatydilcholine Xenopus blastomeres 5 × 109 QDs/cell(approximately 0.23 pmol/cell) 1.5 to 3 nL of 2.3-μM QDs injected, approximately 2.1 × 109 to 4.2 × 109 injected QDs/cell Days 5 × 109 QDs/cell: cell abnormalities, altered viability and motility Dubertret et al. 2002
No toxicity at 2 × 109 QDs/cell
CdSe/ZnS amp-QDs and mPEG QDs [158] Mice 200-μL tail vein injection Injections, approximately 180-nM QD, approximately20-pmol QD/g animal weight 15-min cell incubations, 1 to 133 days in vivo No signs of localized necrosis at the sites of deposition Ballou et al. 2004
CdSe/ZnS-DHLA Dictyostelium discoideum and HeLa cells 400 to 600 nM 45 to 60 min No effects on cell growth Jaiswal et al. 2003
Avidin-conjugated CdSe/ZnS QDs HeLa cells 0.5 to 1.0 μM 15 min No effect on cell growth and development Jaiswal et al. 2003
CdSe/ZnS-amphiphilic micelle Mice Tail vein injection 60-μM QD/g animal weight, 1-μM and 20-nM final QD concentration Not given Mice showed no noticeable ill effects after imaging Larson et al. 2003
CdSe/ZnS-DHLA QDs Mice, B16F10 cells 5 × 104 B16F10 cells with 10-μL QDs (approximately 10 pmol), tail vein (iv) injection 100 μL of B16F10 cells used for tail vein injection, approximately 2 × 105 to 4 × 105 cells injected 4- to 6-h cell incubation, mice sacrificed at 1 to 6 h No toxicity observed in cells or mice Voura et al. 2004
CdSe/ZnS-MUA QDs; QD-SSA complexes [162] Vero cells 0.4 mg/mL 0.24 mg/mL 2 h 0.4-mg/mL MUA/SSA-QD complexes did not affect viability of Vero cells Hanaki et al. 2003
CdSe/ZnS HeLa cells 1 × 106 cells 10-pmol QDs/1 × 105 cells (approximately 10 nM) 10 days (cell culture) 10-nM QD had minimal impact on cell survival Chen and Gerion 2004
CdTe aqQDs HEK293 cells 1 × 105 cells 300 or 600 nM 3 days Nearly completely inhibited cell growth even from the very beginning Nan Chen et al. 2012
CdTe-gelatinized/nongelatinized PC12 cells 1 × 105 cells/cm2 1 to 100 nM 72 h At 1 nM,did not initiate any detrimental effects; at 100 nM, resulted in the death of all cells Babu R Prasad et al. 2010
CdTe, CdTe/CdS, CdTe/CdS/ZnS K562 and HEK293T human cell lines 1 × 105 cells 0.2 to 3.0 μM 0 to 48 h Cells treated with CdTe and CdTe/CdS QDs were mostly nonviable by 48 h (for all concentrations tested). Su et al. 2009
CdSe/ZnS-PEG (EviTag T1 490 QD) Caco-2 (human colon carcinoma) cell line 106 cells/ml, 0.2 ml/well 0.84 to 105 μM 0 to 24 h Commercially available QD demonstrated low cytotoxicity but induced cell detachment. Wang et al. 2008
CdSe Primary rat hippocampal neuron cells in culture 104to 105 cells/ml 1, 10, and 20nM 24 h 1-nM QD for 24 h showed no decrease in cell viability; in contrast, cells treated with 10- and 20-nM QD for 24 h showed decreases in cell viability on the order of 20 and 30%. Tang et al., 2008

Valizadeh et al.

Valizadeh et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:480   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-480

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