Final inversion S3(2tp) for sin-squared pulse as a function of carrier envelope phase φ. The carrier envelope phase is in multiples of Π. The excitation is on-resonance and the pulse area is θ = Π. (a) np= 2 and (b) np= 1. Solid curve: N = 109cm−2, dotted curve: N = 3 × 1011cm−2, dashed curve: N = 5 × 1011cm−2, and dot-dashed curve: N = 7 × 1011cm−2.
Paspalakis and Boviatsis Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:478 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-478