Additional file 1.

Effect of surface roughness on the nanobubble formation. Figure S1a,b show 2-D and 3-D AFM images of nanobubbles formed on the unsputtered FLG sample. The height and lateral size of the bubbles range from 2 to 5 nm and from 15 to 30 nm, respectively. It is also clear that the bubbles are well dispersed in a random fashion. However, agglomeration and an increase in their size and number density are prominent features of the bubbles grown on the irradiated FLG samples as seen from Figure S1(c, d) and (e, f), respectively.

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Al-Harthi et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:466   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-466