Open Access Nano Express

Unusual surface and edge morphologies, sp 2 to sp 3 hybridized transformation and electronic damage after Ar+ ion irradiation of few-layer graphene surfaces

Salim Hamood Al-Harthi1*, Mohammed Elzain1, Muataz Al-Barwani1, Amal Kora'a1, Thomas Hysen2, Myo Tay Zar Myint3 and Maliemadom Ramaswamy Anantharaman2

1 Physics Department, College of Science, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, Al Khoud, Sultan Qaboos, Muscat, 123, Oman

2 Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin-22, Kochi, Kerala, 682 022, India

3 Center of Excellence in Nanotechnology, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, 12120, Thailand

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Nanoscale Research Letters 2012, 7:466  doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-466

Published: 19 August 2012

Additional files

Additional file 1:

Effect of surface roughness on the nanobubble formation. Figure S1a,b show 2-D and 3-D AFM images of nanobubbles formed on the unsputtered FLG sample. The height and lateral size of the bubbles range from 2 to 5 nm and from 15 to 30 nm, respectively. It is also clear that the bubbles are well dispersed in a random fashion. However, agglomeration and an increase in their size and number density are prominent features of the bubbles grown on the irradiated FLG samples as seen from Figure S1(c, d) and (e, f), respectively.

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Additional file 2:

Irradiation features and roughness amplitudes after 3-keV ion irradiation. Figure S2. (a) 3-D image showing the effect of ion irradiation on the FLG edges after Ar+ ion irradiation of 3 keV. A, B and C denote the irradiated edges, cross sputtered areas at 53° from A direction and shadowing features, respectively. (b) PSD obtained from the image shown in (a) showing the amplitude of the surface's roughness of features A, B, and C as a function of the spatial frequency. FFT of the image shown in (a) revealing the presence of features A, B and C is shown in the inset of (b).

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