Figure 6.

Proposed scheme for understanding the role of ultrasonic energy in the formation of gold nanoparticles. (a) Reduction of gold ions with sonication energy;, (b) growth of gold nanoparticles, (c) prevention or minimisation of wire-shaped gold cluster formation by breaking chain-like nanowires by ultrasonic waves, (d) monodispersed gold nanoparticles by ultrasonic waves with Oswald ripening or intra-particle ripening and (e) particle-particle fusion induced by excess of ultrasonic energy.

Lee et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:420   doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-420
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