Change in the root mean square surface roughness of the tubes with anodization time. (a) The samples were anodized at 20 V. Inset SEM micrographs showing the change in surface morphology after anodizing for 0, 0.35, and 10 min. (b) AFM image of the Ti film surface after anodization at 20 V for 10 min. The sputtered film thickness was about 650 nm.
Chappanda et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:388 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-388