Filling quality of the macropores with copper. SEM polished, sliced views of copper-filled macropores comparing the filling quality of macropores with copper. (a) Using a non-accurate electrolytic solution (JGB concentration equal to 5 ppm) leads to void formation during the copper growth. (b) Using an adapted electrolyte (JGB concentration was increased to 10 ppm) leads to the formation of void-free copper deposition.
Defforge et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:375 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-375