Selective TSV formation by local seed layer deposition. (a) Electrochemical etching of silicon leading to through-silicon macropore array formation. (b) Local deposition of the seed layer on one side of the sample. (c) The macropores sealed by the seed layer are selectively filled with copper.
Defforge et al. Nanoscale Research Letters 2012 7:375 doi:10.1186/1556-276X-7-375